In the first session of Reflective Practice, we identified the fact that we do, indeed, have reactions to patient encounters sometimes, explored how we name those, talked about the sources of those reactions (our personal context).
One of the trickier things to do, after identifying first what your reaction is and then what your context for that reaction is, is to then figure out what the positive and negative implications are to your patient care. As an example, why does it matter if you feel strongly about someone’s weight issue? How could your ability to empathize (or not) impact your delivery of patient care? Could it mean the difference between a therapeutic and non-therapeutic patient-provider relationship. If a provider feels that all weight issues fall into the patient’s lap squarely as something he or she alone is responsible for — they aren’t exercising enough or are eating too much or making poor food choices — how does that impact one’s ability to help that person?
Another example could be this: a patient has had their 3rd overdose and is in the ER yet again. The patient has chronic pain from a war injury, and ended up addicted to opioid medications. The provider treating this person had a family member who died recently from complications of alcoholism, and feels sad when he hears the story of this patient. However, he is also on his 4th shift in a row, is behind on charting, and hasn’t seen his kids in 3 days. How might that influence his care of this person? If this provider was you, how would your context for these kinds of situations potentially influence your patient care?
The IMPLICATION of being frustrated with a patient who seems unwilling to change their ways, in the example above, may be that you will be less likely to address opportunities for harm reduction or other smaller ways to manage lifestyle changes. A positive implication might be that you work on your motivational interviewing skill in order to assess their stages of change and work to build rapport to get past your frustration. Sadness might create a connection for the patient in a way that the patient hasn’t experience before when coming to the ER in this situation, but also might drive the provider to be avoidant of the patient’s needs in order to protect his own feelings.
Thinking about implications links to the ideas in Daniel Kahneman’s work in “Thinking Fast and Slow”, which you had some orientation to in an earlier lecture. The automatic associations or reactions we have do have clear implications for patient care. How can we get them into System 2 thinking to better manage them?
Later in your medical education, we will focus on what you might actually do (the plan) to try to tackle some of these issues. The focus for now is on IDENTIFYING THE IMPLICATIONS and then REFLECTING as a whole on what you’ve learned about yourself (your biases, how your context influences your emotions on a particular topics, etc).
YOUR PAPERS ARE DUE BY FRIDAY SEPT 24th. They can be based on any clinical encounter you have had in your life to this point. You can also use your home visit OR you can use something about the families you met in your ethics session on Sept 23rd at fodder for the paper. As a reminder, they are confidential and will only be read by your facilitator or me, as the course director, if there is some need for remediation. Also see some of the resources below for further insights to this part of RP.
Note: On all papers in Reflective Practice, please:
- submit to Sakai in Word format
- include your email address in the header, and
- include your last name in the file name (we have to sort them by last name!!!)
Identify a patient encounter in which you had a reaction to the patient or the situation. This may be a patient encounter you had prior to starting school at USU, or a patient encounter you had or observed as part of your interviewing class. If this is a recent encounter, consider whether this reaction is one you think you would have had prior to starting school at USU; if this is an encounter in the past, consider in what ways your reaction to this situation would likely be similar and different now that you are in the process of becoming a physician. Using this as the stimulus, compose a reflective essay, using the R.S.I.R. (Reactions, Sources, Implications, Review) format. it makes it clearer when you actually use the titles: “Reactions, Sources, Implications, and Review” as headers for each section of your paper (see your syllabus for specifics!). Please follow the detailed instructions for each section as follows:
- Set the stage briefly. Jot down a few lines to set the stage for the encounter you are discussing so that others will understand the situation.
- As an example: Ms. M. is a 22 year old patient who was admitted to the ward with complaints of paresthesias and diplopia for the past 3 weeks. She was very anxious and worried about what this might mean. Her MRI, done on admission, showed changes consistent with Multiple Sclerosis and when I met her, she had heard this being discussed, but hadn’t had the chance to talk to anyone about it, so I was the first one to start explaining what this meant.
- Reactions – Identify at least two reactions you had to a given patient care experience. This may include your reaction to the way the patient looked, how they spoke, their physical characteristics, the chief complaint, their healthcare problems, etc. Identify each reaction in bullet format with 1-2 sentences afterwards that describe the reaction more fully. As an example:
- Frustrated – I found myself becoming very angry when I learned that our 22 year old patient had Multiple sclerosis. The situation seemed very unfair to me and I was unable to reconcile her reality with the world as I view it.
- Overwhelmed – When I realized that she had Multiple Sclerosis and that this is a lifelong illness, I felt completely overwhelmed and didn’t know what to do or say.
- Sources – Examine the sources of these reactions (your personal context). If this was a past patient care experience, consider in what ways you think you would react differently to that situation today. If this is a recent patient care experience, consider in what ways you think you would have reacted differently to that situation in the past. The below example describes the sources for one of the above reactions. In your paper, identify the sources for each reaction.
- Growing in Iowa with my mom, dad and the 5 of us boys meant a lot of rough housing and wrestling matches. Being the youngest of the bunch, you might assume that I was the rag doll who would get pummeled on a regular basis. As it turns out, that did happen from time to time but not as often as you might think. I was saved by our parents’ belief in a “level playing field” which they frequently referred to as “fair play”. In terms of the basement wrestling matches, this meant that when one brother was more than 2 years older than another and we wrestled the older one could only use one arm. I don’t recall my parents putting this rule into place – we just made it up on our own, something I attribute to the five of us understanding and accepting fairness as an important value. The importance of the value of “fairness” impacted my experiences in our community as well. An example is when I was in a playoff game for 7 vs. 7 pop-warner football. While warming up, we realized the other team only had 6 players, a clear advantage for us, not only because they would have to play one person short but because they would be exhausted by the end of the game without subs. We were all grins and smiles, until our coach called the 13 of us over to the bench and had us put out one or two fingers on the count of three. We were bewildered, but he was the coach and this was farm country in Iowa – we did what he asked. Seven of us put out 1 finger and six of us put out 2. I remember sitting there with my one finger out, as he explained that the 6 boys with 2 fingers held out would play and the rest of us would sit on the bench and not play at all. As he explained it, it was the only way to make the game truly fair. I remember having mixed emotions that day – frustrated that I couldn’t play (which ironically didn’t seem fair to me even if it was fair to the other team) and also proud that I had a coach whose actions demonstrated the principles he preached. I think it was also easier to understand coming from the family in which I was raised.I think this is why I was so upset when we saw Ms. M. My belief in a sense of fair play was demolished. Here she was, a healthy, physically fit 22 year old, who had taken care of herself, and we were handing her a diagnosis of Multiple Sclerosis. Where’s the fairness in that?
- I don’t think that my reaction now differs all that much from how I would have reacted in the past. Fairness has, and continues to be, important to me. At the same time, even with only a few weeks of school under my belt, I see how my personal context and perspective is changing. While I want the world to be a fair place, my experiences on the wards have shown me that when it comes to health, the idea that one’s health is in any way associated with “fairness” is rather absurd. Prior to starting at USU, I lacked many personal experiences with patients. From this distanced vantage point, I used to believe that people became ill for a reason – usually related to their not caring for themselves and being lazy about their diet, exercise, etc. Meeting my 22 year-old patient, who lived a healthy lifestyle made me question this, as have a number of other experiences.
- Implications – Analyze the positive and negative implications of your reactions for patients care.
- As noted above, I am coming to realize that life, and especially one’s health or lack thereof is not always an issue of “fairness” but that doesn’t make it any less frustrating for me. I worry that when I talk with patients who are experiencing illnesses or injuries that don’t seem fair, my frustration may distract me from being “present” at the visit – a concept I have heard referred to before as “mindfulness” – and as a result of my distraction, I might not listen fully to their concerns, which would inhibit my ability to care for them as best as I could. In addition, I worry that my frustration with the lack of “fairness” will be evident in my non-verbal communication and could be interpreted by them as frustration with them and not frustration with the situation. At the same time, my frustration may have beneficial implications if I can channel that energy into working more diligently to read about my patients’ medical problems, new treatments, and to do everything I can to help them.
- Review– As you summarize the situation, think about what you learned from the experience. Describe ONE LESSON you LEARNED about yourself, about trying to manage your reaction in this context, etc.
- Continuing to see more and more patients is likely to help me to become more comfortable with the lack of “fairness” that exists in healthcare and decrease the frustration I feel. I realized in reflecting on this situation I was unprepared for just how frustrated I felt when meeting Mrs. M. I have often viewed myself as someone who can contain and rationalize my feelings, so the amount of time I spent thinking about her after our encounter surprised me. It also made me want to try to connect better with patients like her next time, maybe by asking, “That situations sounds very frustrating – how are you doing with it?”
Objectives: By the end of the session, students, through written and verbal expression will demonstrate:
- The ability to identify reactions they have had in the context of patient care experiences.
- The ability to examine the sources of those reactions and how one’s reactions and perspective can change over time as a result of the fluidity of one’s personal context.
- The ability to analyze the implications (both positive and negative) of one’s reactions for patient care
- The ability to describe a lesson learned around a patient experience and create a question for further exploration of the topic.